Ultrasonic testing (UT) is typically conducted to locate and classify (or rate) defects in welds during bridge fabrication. Variations in acoustic properties such as attenuation and velocity can have an impact on the UT results. Defects in welds may be missed, incorrectly rated, or incorrectly located, and false calls may occur that require unnecessary repairs. The objective of the research was to assess the impact of variations in acoustic properties on the ultrasonic testing of bridge steel. This paper describes the results of acoustic property measurements of 14 different material heats representing various grades of steel plate used in bridges. The attenuation of various bridge base materials was evaluated using 2.25 MHz and 5 MHz transducers. Shear wave velocities and acoustic anisotropy ratios were also determined for some of these steels using normal incidence shear wave and electromagnetic acoustic (EMAT) transducers. The experimental results as well as CIVA-UT simulation software were used to develop recommended changes to the AWS D1.5 Bridge Welding Code in order to limit the amplitude and location measurement errors for weld flaws.
1. NCHRP, NCHRP Research Report 908: Acceptance Criteria of Complete Joint Penetration Steel Bridge Welds Evaluated Using Enhanced Ultrasonic Methods (The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2019). DOI: 10.17226/25494.
2. ASTM, E114-15: Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Straight-Beam Contact Testing (ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015).
3. C. H. Gür and Y. Keleş, Insight: Non-Destr. Test. Cond. Monit. 45 (9), 615–620 (2003).
4. E. Papadakis, Metall. Trans. 1 (April), 1053–1057 (1970).
5. R. Prasad and S. Kumar, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 42 (1), 51–59 (1994). DOI: 10.1016/0924-0136(94)90074-4.
6. ISO, (ISO 2400:2012) Non-destructive Testing - Ultrasonic Testing - Specification for Calibration Block No. 1 (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 2012a).
7. AASHTO/AWS, D1.5M/D1.5:2015 Bridge Welding Code (American Welding Society, Miami, FL, 2015).
8. CSA, W59-18: Welded Steel Construction (CSA Group, Toronto, Canada, 2018).
9. ISO, (ISO 16811:2012) Non-destructive Testing - Ultrasonic Testing - Sensitivity and Range Setting (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 2012b).
10. ISO, (ISO 17640:2017) Non-destructive Testing of Welds - Ultrasonic Testing - Techniques, Testing Levels, and Assessment (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 2017).
11. ASME, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (2017) Section V: Nondestructive Examination (The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY, 2017).
12. Japanese Standards Association, JIS Z 3060:2015 Method for Ultrasonic Testing for Welds of Ferritic Steel (Japanese Standards Association, Tokyo, Japan, 2015).
13. API, API RP 2X: Recommended Practice for Ultrasonic and Magnetic Examination of Offshore Structural Fabrication and Guidelines for Qualification of Technicians (API Publishing Services, Washington, DC, 2015).
14. P. Holloway, CINDE. 38 (3), 6–11 (2017).
15. IBA, K., Trans. Iron Steel Inst. Jpn. 27 (11), 898–909 (1987). DOI: 10.2355/isijinternational1966.27.898.
16. N. Rattanasuwannachart et al., J. Struct. Eng/Earthquake Eng. Appl. Mech. 21 (1), 1s–9s (2004). DOI: 10.2208/jsceseee.21.1s.
17. ASTM, ASTM E112-13: Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size (ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013).
18. C. J. Schroeder, Inspection of Steel Bridge Welds Using Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (Purdue University Graduate School, 2019). Thesis. DOI:10.25394/PGS.7366943.v1.
19. EXTENDE, CIVA-UT (EXTENDE, Massy, France, 2017).
20. ISO, (ISO 17640:2010) Non-destructive Testing of Welds — Ultrasonic Testing — Techniques, Testing Levels, and Assessment (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 2010).
21. Det Norske Veritas, Classification Notes No. 7: Non-destructive Testing Techniques (Det Norske Veritas AS, 2012).
22 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares