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Personnel Training Publications: Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT), Classroom Training Book, Second Edition


The Liquid Penetrant Testing Classroom Training Book covers Level I and Level II material and follows the body of knowledge outlined in CP-105 for liquid penetrant testing (PT). The second edition includes, but is not limited to, the following updates: new information on Type III dual-mode penetrant, light-emitting diode lamps, and recommendations for viewing shallow indications, as well as an expanded section on safety precautions. Figures and tables have also been added or updated to bring the material up to date.

  • Member Price: $21.50
  • Non-member Price: $28.60
Format Softcover


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Additional Details

  • Item Number: 1640
  • Published: 2019
  • Pages: 98
  • Edition: Second
  • ISBN: 1-978-57117-445-1



Table of Contents

Level I Liquid Penetrant Testing

Chapter 1 – Introduction to Liquid Penetrant Testing

  • History
  • The Purpose of Liquid Penetrant Testing
  • Basic Principles
    • Commercially Available Liquid Penetrant Materials
  • Personnel Qualification and Certification
    • Employee Certification
      • Training
      • Experience
      • Examination
      • Certification
  • Safety Precautions
    • Fire
    • Skin Irritation
    • Air Pollution
    • Ultraviolet Radiation

Chapter 2 – Liquid Penetrant Processing

  • Procedures and Techniques
    • Preparation of Test Objects
    • Precleaning of Test Objects
  • Precleaning and Postcleaning Equipment
    • Solvent Cleaning
    • Detergent Cleaning
    • Vapor Degreasing
    • Steam Cleaning
    • Ultrasonic Cleaning
    • Rust and Surface Scale Removal
    • Paint Removal
    • Etching
    • Precleaning Processes to be Avoided
    • Precleaning and Postcleaning Materials
    • Drying Test Objects
  • Dwell Time
  • Application of Penetrant
  • Removal of Excess Surface Penetrant
    • Adequate Illumination
    • Water Rinse (Method A, B and D)
    • Manual Wipe (Method C)
    • Developer Application and Drying
      • Dry Powder
      • Water Soluble
      • Water Suspendible
      • Nonaqueous
    • Development Time
  • Interpretation and Evaluation
    • Interpretation
    • Evaluation
  • Indications
    • False Indications
    • Nonrelevant Indications
    • Relevant Indications
  • Categories of Relevant Indications
    • Continuous Linear
    • Intermittent Linear
    • Round
    • Diffused or Weak
  • Discontinuity Depth Determination
  • Typical Indications
  • Postcleaning
    • Postcleaning Materials

Chapter 3 – Liquid Penetrant Testing Methods

  • Standard Methods
    • Method Characteristics
      • Fluorescent or Visible
      • Solvent or Water Removable
    • Inline Penetrant Systems
    • Lipophilic Emulsification
    • Hydrophilic Emulsification

Chapter 4 – Liquid Penetrant Testing Equipment

  • Liquid Penetrant Testing Units
    • Stations
    • Auxiliary Equipment
      • Pumps
      • Sprayers and Applicators
      • Lights
      • Timers
      • Thermostats and Thermometers
      • Exhaust Fans
      • Refractometer
      • Hydrometer
  • Portable Equipment
    • Visible Dye Penetrant Kit
    • Fluorescent Penetrant Kit
  • Ultraviolet Radiation
    • Tubular Fluorescent Cold Discharge Sources
    • Testing in Subdued White Light
    • Light Meters
  • Materials for Liquid Penetrant Testing
    • Precleaning and Postcleaning Materials
    • Water Washable Penetrants
    • Postemulsification Penetrants
    • Emulsifiers
  • Solvent Removers
    • Dry Developer
    • Nonaqueous Wet Developer
    • Water Based Developers
    • Special Purpose Penetrant Materials
  • Precautions

Level II Liquid Penetrant Testing

Chapter 5 – Selection of Liquid Penetrant Testing Method

  • Selection
  • Advantages and Disadvantages
    • Portability
    • Postemulsification
    • Dry Developer
    • Wet Developers

Chapter 6 – Interpretation and Evaluation of Indications

  • Discontinuity Categories
    • Inherent Discontinuities
    • Processing Discontinuities
    • Service Discontinuities
  • Indications
    • Forming of Discontinuity Indications
    • Time for Indications to Appear
    • Persistence of Indications
    • Effects of Temperature
    • Lighting
    • Effects of Metal Smearing Operations
    • Sequence
    • Test Object Preparation
  • Factors Affecting Indications
    • Penetrant Used
    • Prior Processing
  • Crack Indications
    • Solidification Cracks
    • Processing Cracks
    • Service Cracks
  • Porosity Indications
  • Indications from Specific Material Forms
    • Forgings
    • Castings
    • Plate
    • Welds
    • Extrusions
  • Evaluation of Indications
    • False Indications
    • Relevant Indications
    • Nonrelevant Indications

Chapter 7 – Liquid Penetrant Process Control

  • Quality Control of Test Materials
    • Test Material Control Samples
  • Reference Blocks
    • System Monitor Panels
    • Aluminum Reference Blocks
      • Preparation for Use
      • Preparation for Reuse
    • Ceramic Reference Blocks
      • Preparation for Use
      • Usage
      • Cleaning After Use
    • Anodized and Plated Test Panels
      • Preparation for Use
      • Usage
    • Twin NiCr Sensitivity Panels
    • Stainless Steel Test Panels
      • Preparation for Use
    • Low Cycle Fatigue Blocks
  • Tests of Liquid Penetrant Materials
    • Sensitivity Comparison Test
    • Water Washability Test
    • Water Content Test
    • Fluorescent Luminance Test
  • Emulsifier Tests
  • Developer Tests
    • Dry Developer
    • Wet Developer

Chapter 8 – Test Procedures and Standards

  • Procedures, Standards and Codes
    • Acceptance Criteria
  • Basic Methods of Instruction
  • Conclusion


Bibliography and Figure Sources


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