Personnel Training Publications: Ultrasonic Testing (UT), Classroom Training Book, Second Edition (eBook)


Part of the Personnel Training Publications series, the Ultrasonic Testing Classroom Training Book is designed to prepare Level I and Level II candidates for nondestructive testing certification in a classroom setting. The second edition includes new material on two techniques: phased array and time of flight diffraction. Also, a chapter on the guided wave method has been added. Other updates include enhanced coverage of material in accordance with CP-105 (2011) topical outlines for Levels I and II. Contents cover principles of acoustics, ultrasonic displays, transducer operation, calibration blocks, and ultrasonic testing applications.

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Additional Details

  • Item Number: 1642-e
  • Published: 2015
  • Pages: 273
  • Edition: Second
  • ISBN: 978-1-57117-349-2
Chapter 1: Introduction to Ultrasonic Testing
  • Introduction
  • Definition of Ultrasonics
  • History of Ultrasonic Testing
  • Basic Math Review
    • Acoustic Formulas
    • Order of Mathematical Operations
    • Trigonometry
    • Right Triangles
    • Sine, Cosine, and Tangent
  • Introducing Decibels
  • Qualification
    • Levels of Qualification
      • Level I Responsibilities
      • Level II Responsibilities
      • Level III Responsibilities
      • Challenges
  • Certification
    • Employee Certification
      • Training
      • Experience
      • Examination
      • Certification

Chapter 2: Basic Principles of Acoustics

  • Nature of Sound Waves
  • Modes of Sound-Wave Generation
    • Propagation of Sound Energy
  • Comparison of Wave Modes
    • Longitudinal-Wave Mode
    • Shear-Wave Mode
    • Rayleigh-Wave Mode
    • Lamb Waves
      • Lamb Wave Types
      • Lamb Wave Modes
    • Wave Reflection at a Boundary
    • Attenuation of Sound Waves
    • Acoustical Impedance
    • Impedance Ratio
  • Reflection
    • Reflection Coefficient
  • Refraction and Mode Conversion
    • Mixed Mode Conversion
  • Snell’s Law and Critical Angles
    • Snell’s Law Calculations
      • Typical Problem-Solving Method
  • Critical Angles of Refraction
    • First Critical Angle
    • Second Critical Angle
    • Calculation of Critical Angles

Chapter 3: Equipment

  • Introduction
  • Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
    • A-Scan Equipment
    • B-Scan Equipment
    • C-Scan Equipment
  • Pulse-Echo Instrumentation Electronics
    • Power Supply
    • Transducer
    • Pulser/Receiver
    • Display and Timer
  • Control Functions
    • Instrument Gain Controls
    • Probe Mode Control
    • Range and Delay Controls
    • Instrumentation
      • On/Off Control
      • Display/Status Control
      • Gain Control
      • Reject Control
      • Zero Offset Control
      • Range Control
      • Velocity Control
    • Pulser Settings
      • Rectification Control
      • Pulser Energy Control
      • Damping Control
      • Frequency Control
    • Other Features
      • Distance-Amplitude Correction
      • Gated Alarm
  • Calibration
    • Basic Instrument Standardizing
    • Calibration Blocks
      • Area-Amplitude Blocks
      • Distance-Amplitude Blocks
      • ASTM Calibration Blocks
      • Special Blocks
    • Calibration of Semiautomatic and Automatic Systems
  • Digital Thickness Instrumentation
  • Sound Velocity Measurements

Chapter 4: Transducer Operation and Theory

  • Introduction
    • Piezoelectric Effect
    • Transducer Materials
    • Frequency
  • Near Field and Far Field
    • Near Field
    • Far Field
      • Beam Spread
    • Side-Lobe Radiation
  • Types of Transducers
    • Paintbrush Transducers
    • Dual Transducers
    • Longitudinal- and Shear-Wave Transducers
    • Faced-Unit or Contour-Focused Transducers
    • Phased Arrays
    • Contact and Angle-Beam Transducers
    • Beam Intensity Characteristics
  • Sensitivity, Resolution, and Damping
    • Sensitivity
    • Resolution
      • Spatial Resolution
    • Damping
  • Couplants
    • Purpose and Principles
    • Materials
    • Contact Couplant Selection
    • Immersion Couplant Selection
  • Nonconducting Transducers
    • Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers
    • Air-Coupled Transducers
    • Laser-Induced Ultrasound
    • Summary

Chapter 5: Basic Ultrasonic Testing Techniques

  • Introduction
  • Contact Testing
    • Longitudinal-Wave Technique
    • Pulse-Echo Techniques
    • Through-Transmission Technique
    • Angle-Beam Technique
    • Surface-Wave Technique
  • Immersion Testing
    • Variations of Immersion Testing
    • Standard Immersion Technique
    • Bubbler Technique
    • Wheel-Transducer Technique

Chapter 6: Principles of Ultrasonics

  • Importance of Ultrasonic Testing
  • Overview of Ultrasonic Testing
    • Five Basic Elements of Ultrasonic Testing
      • Energy Source
      • Probing Medium
      • Modifier
      • Detector
      • Display
  • Ultrasonic Instrumentation
    • Pulser
      • Pulse Characteristics
    • Amplifier
      • Other Amplifier Functions
    • Display Unit
      • A-Scan Display
      • B-Scan Display
      • C-Scan Display
      • Computerized Systems
  • Transducers
    • Penetration versus Sensitivity and Resolution
    • Transducer Damping
    • Testing and Documentation
    • Piezoelectric Materials
  • Testing Techniques
    • Ultrasonic Testing in Industrial Settings
    • Acoustic Coupling
    • Dry Coupling
    • Air Coupling
    • Immersion Coupling
      • Squirter Systems
  • Base Material Testing
    • Straight-Beam Testing
    • Angle-Beam Testing
  • Weld Testing
    • Weld Configurations
    • Scanning Patterns
    • Selecting Reference Points
    • Sizing Discontinuities
  • Directivity Pattern of Piezoelectric Transducers

Chapter 7: Equipment Calibration

  • Introduction
  • Transducer Performance Checks
  • Instrument Calibration
    • Amplitude Linearity
    • Calibration Steps
  • Straight-Beam Calibration
    • System Sensitivity
    • Area-Amplitude Blocks
    • Distance-Amplitude Blocks
      • Distance-Amplitude Correction Curve
  • Angle-Beam Calibration
    • Basic Calibration Block
      • Calibration Procedure
      • Plotting a Distance-Amplitude Correction Curve
    • International Institute of Welding (IIW) Block
      • Angle-Beam Inspection
      • Setting the Screen Width
      • Calibrating with the IIW Block
      • Defect Level and Defect Rating
    • Distance Sensitivity Calibration Block
      • Screen Setup
      • Reference Level
      • Sound Paths in the DSC Block
  • Miscellaneous Calibration Blocks

Chapter 8: Evaluation of Base Material Product Forms

  • Introduction
  • Steelmaking Process
    • Ingots
    • Continuous Casting
    • Discontinuities in Steel
  • Slabs and Billets
  • Plate and Sheet
    • Discontinuities in Plate and Sheet
  • Bar and Rod
    • Extrusion Process for Bar and Rod
    • Ultrasonic Testing of Bar and Rod
    • Hydrogen Flakes
  • Pipe and Tubular Products
    • Extrusion Process for Tubes
    • Welded Pipe
    • Inservice Inspection of Pipe and Tube
  • Forgings
    • Ultrasonic Inspection of Forgings
    • Applicable Codes/Standards for Forgings
  • Castings
    • Casting Discontinuities
    • Ultrasonic Testing of Castings
    • Applicable Codes/Standards for Castings
  • Composites (Bonded Structures)
  • Welds
    • Welding Terminology
      • Weld Grooves
      • Heat-Affected Zone
    • Welding Processes
      • Shielding Gases
    • Types of Shielding Weld Processes
      • Shielded Metal Arc Welding
      • Submerged Arc Welding
      • Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
      • Gas Metal Arc Welding
      • Flux-Cored Arc Welding
    • Weld Discontinuities
      • Cracks
      • Incomplete Penetration
      • Lack of Fusion
      • Porosity
      • Slag Inclusions
      • Tungsten Inclusions
      • Undercut
  • Nonrelevant Indications
    • Backing-Bar Signals
    • Mode-Converted Signals
    • Signals from External Attachments
    • Doubling Signals

Chapter 9: Ultrasonic Testing Applications

  • Introduction
    • Inservice Testing
    • Uses of Ultrasonic Testing
  • Test Objects with Flat Surfaces
    • Detecting Planar Discontinuities
    • Discontinuities Parallel to the Entry Surface
      • Laminar Discontinuities
      • Calibration of Horizontal and Vertical Axes
    • Thickness Measurement
    • Discontinuities Perpendicular to the Entry Surface
      • Crack Detection
      • Angle-Beam Technique
      • A-Scan Presentation
    • Discontinuities Removed from the Entry Surface
  • Special Case of Thin Materials
    • Use of Dual-Element Transducers
    • Testing of Spot Welds
    • Bonded and Brazed Materials
    • Testing Composites
  • Test Objects with Curved Surfaces
  • Test Objects with Irregular Surfaces
  • Compressed Discontinuities
  • Scattering Discontinuities
  • Gating Applications
  • Material Characterization
  • Limited-Access Tests
  • Summary

Chapter 10: Phased Array

  • Introduction
    • Terminology
  • Background
  • Operation
  • Implementation
  • Scan Types
    • Electronic Scans
    • Sectorial Scans (S-Scans)
    • Linear Scanning of Welds
  • Advantages of Phased Array
    • Beam Focusing
    • Timing System
    • Beam Steering
  • Limitations of Phased Array
  • Contact Modes of Phased Array
    • Manual Contact Phased Arrays
      • Time-Based Encoding
      • Encoded Linear Scans
    • Semiautomated Contact Phased Arrays
    • Automated Contact Phased Arrays
  • Discontinuity Characterization
  • Phased Array Arrangements
    • Phased Linear Arrays
      • Limitations of Phased Linear Arrays
      • Phased Linear Array Design
      • Two-Dimensional Linear Arrays
    • Phased Planar Arrays
    • Phased Annular Arrays
      • Annular Array Design
      • Annular Array Applications
  • Applications of Phased Array Systems
    • Pressure Vessel Inspections
    • Tailored Weld Inspections
    • Pipe Mills

Chapter 11: Time of Flight Diffraction

  • Introduction
  • Basic Principle
  • Common Practice
  • Applications
  • Technique
  • Discontinuity Classification
  • Advantages of TOFD
  • Disadvantages of TOFD
    • Limitations
  • Test Variables
  • Data Display

Chapter 12: Guided Wave Method

  • Introduction
    • Basic Principle
    • Waveguides
  • Advantages and Limitations of Guided Wave
    • Advantages
    • Limitations
    • Propagation Distance
  • Types of Guided Waves
    • Surface Waves
    • Guided Waves in Plates
    • Wave Modes in Tubular Structures
      • Axial Direction
      • Circumferential Direction
  • Dispersion
    • Dispersion Curves
      • Understanding Dispersion Curves
    • Phase and Group Velocity
  • Guided Wave Transducers
    • Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers
      • Advantages of EMATs
      • Limitations of EMATs
      • EMAT Probe Configurations
      • Physical Mechanisms of EMATs
    • Sensor Arrays
  • Applications of Guided Wave
    • Pipeline Inspection
    • Aircraft Inspection
  • Closing

Chapter 13: Evaluation Standards

  • The Role of Standards in Industry
    • ASTM Standards
    • ASME Code
    • API Standards
    • AWS Codes
    • Use of Standards and Codes
    • Typical Approaches
    • Safety Issues
    • Acceptance Criteria
  • Structure of Standards
  • Sample Specifications
    • ASTM Standard
    • Excerpt from ASTM A-609
    • ASME Standard
    • Excerpt from Article 5
    • T-510: Scope
    • T-522: Written Procedure Requirements
    • Military Standard
    • Excerpt from MIL-STD-2154
    • Acceptance Criteria
    • Quality Assurance Provisions
  • Construction Standards
  • Additional Considerations for Evaluation Standards
    • Application of Results of Other NDT Methods
    • Types and Locations of Discontinuities
    • Intended Use of the Part
  • Summary
  • Conclusion


Ultrasonic Testing

Guided Wave Testing

Figure Sources



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