Personnel Training Publications: Magnetic Particle Testing Classroom Training Book Second Edition

1641

Contains up-to-date information on many aspects of magnetic particle testing. Organized to follow the body of knowledge outlined in CP-105 (2011) for Levels I and II. Content includes theories of magnetism, demagnetization techniques, equipment selection, discontinuities detectable with MT, ferromagnetic particles and application, and magnetization methods. Also contains chapters on types of electric current for MT, evaluation techniques, and quality control.

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Additional Details

  • Item Number: 1641
  • Published: 2015
  • Pages: 179
  • Edition: Second
  • ISBN: 978-1-57117-353-9

Acknowledgments

Foreword

Chapter 1: Principles of Magnetic Particle Testing

  • Capabilities of Magnetic Particle Testing
  • Magnets and Magnetic Fields
    • Magnetic Fields
    • Detection of Discontinuities
  • Law of Magnetism
    • Materials Influenced by Magnetic Fields
  • Characteristics of Magnetic Fields
  • Personnel Qualifications

Chapter 2: Effects of Discontinuities on Materials

  • Surface Discontinuities
    • Scratches
  • Subsurface Discontinuities

Chapter 3: Magnetization

  • Magnetization Methods
  • Circular Fields
    • Direct Magnetization
    • Indirect Magnetization
    • Skin Effect
    • Inducing Magnetic Fields in Test Objects
    • Equipment for Inducing Circular Fields
      • Contact Plates
      • Prods
    • Discontinuity Detection
  • Longitudinal Fields
    • Field Strength and Direction
    • Discontinuities Detected by Longitudinal Fields
    • Advantages of Longitudinal Magnetization
    • Disadvantages of Longitudinal Magnetization
  • Multidirectional Magnetization
  • Test Materials
    • Wet Particles
    • Dry Particles

Chapter 4: Principles of Demagnetization

  • Alternating Current Demagnetization
  • Direct Current Demagnetization
  • Efficiency of Demagnetization
  • Reasons for Demagnetization
    • Required Demagnetization
    • Residual Fields
  • Reasons Not to Demagnetize
  • Batch Demagnetization

Chapter 5: Equipment

  • Equipment Selection
    • Purpose of Test
    • Area Tested
    • Particles Used
  • Mobile Equipment
  • Stationary Testing Equipment
    • Automated Equipment
  • Medical Safety Considerations

Chapter 6: Discontinuities

  • Inherent Discontinuities
  • Processing Discontinuities
    • Primary Processing Discontinuities
      • Rolling and Extruding Discontinuities
      • Forging Discontinuities
      • Welding Discontinuities
    • Secondary Processing Discontinuities
  • Inservice Discontinuities
  • Summary

Chapter 7: Magnetic Principles

  • Theories of Magnetism
    • Magnetic Flux Leakage
  • Magnetic Particle Testing Procedure
  • Testing Techniques
  • Magnetic Field Theory
    • Magnetic Domains
    • Magnetic Poles
    • Magnetic Fields
    • Magnetized Ring
      • Effect of Cracks in a Magnetized Ring
    • Bar Magnet
      • Effect of Cracks in a Magnetized Bar
    • Retentivity and Coercive Force
  • Effect of Materials on Electromagnetic Fields
  • Units of Measure for Magnetic Flux
  • Magnetic Hysteresis
    • Magnetic Field Strength and Flux Density
    • Removal of Residual Magnetism
    • Residual Magnetism and Heat-Treatment
  • Magnetic Permeability

Chapter 8: Flux Fields

  • Electric Current
    • Alternating Current
      • Safety Precautions
    • Direct Current
      • Half-Wave Current
      • Single-Phase Full-Wave Current
      • Three-Phase Full-Wave Current
    • Voltage and Current Factors

Chapter 9: Magnetic Particles and Methods of Application

  • Introduction
    • Particle Size
    • Dry versus Wet Applications
      • Use of Wetting Agents
      • Dry Applicators
    • Current Level and Particle Application
  • Selection of Magnetization Technique
  • Continuous Method
    • Continuous Wet Method Procedure
    • Magnetizing Current with the Continuous Method
  • Residual Method
    • Residual Method Amperage
    • Residual Wet Method Procedure
    • Use of Dry Powders with the Residual Method
  • Field Direction
  • Magnetic Field Measurements
    • Hall Effect Meter
    • Pie Gage
    • Adhesive Indicator
  • Circular Magnetization
    • Direct Contact
    • Central Conductor
    • Amperage for Circular Magnetization
      • Direct Contact Amperage
      • Central Conductor Amperage
  • Longitudinal Magnetization
    • Coil Shot
    • Cable Wrap
    • Amperage for Longitudinal Magnetization
  • Sensitivity Level
    • Effect of Amperage on Sensitivity
    • Effect of Testing Media on Sensitivity
      • Wet Method
      • Dry Method
      • Magnetic Flux Density

Chapter 10: Magnetization by Means of Electric Current

  • Units of Measure and Terminology
    • SI Units for Magnetic Testing
      • Magnetic Field Intensity
      • Magnetic Flux Density
      • Magnetic Flux
      • Illumination
      • Ultraviolet Radiation
  • Types of Magnetic Materials
    • Diamagnetic Materials
    • Paramagnetic Materials
    • Ferromagnetic Materials
  • Circular Magnetization
    • Circular Magnetization of Solid Test Objects
      • Circular Magnetization with Prods
      • Circular Magnetization with Direct Contact
      • Circular Magnetization with Induced Current
    • Circular Magnetization of Hollow Test Objects
  • Longitudinal Magnetization
    • Coil Magnetization
      • Important Considerations in Coil Magnetization
    • Field-Flow Magnetization
    • Yoke Magnetization
      • Yoke Break or Lift Test
      • Concurrent Leakage
  • Combined Circular and Longitudinal Magnetization
  • Calculation of Magnetic Force Requirements
    • Prods
    • Yokes
    • Coils
      • Air-Core Coil Longitudinal Magnetization
      • Fill-Factor Coils
  • Magnetic Particle Indications
    • Generation of Indications
    • Interpretation of Indications
    • Evaluation of Indications
    • Magnetic Writing

Chapter 11: Advanced Demagnetization Techniques

  • Purpose
  • Principles of Operation for Demagnetization
  • Requirements to Demagnetize
    • Reasons to Demagnetize
    • Reasons Not to Demagnetize
  • Demagnetization Methods
    • Heating above the Curie Point
    • Electromagnetic Demagnetization
    • Alternating Current Demagnetization
    • Direct Current Demagnetization
    • Yoke Demagnetization
  • Demagnetization Practices

Chapter 12: Magnetic Particle Testing Equipment

  • Stationary Equipment
    • Mechanized Equipment
    • Semiautomatic Equipment
      • Single-Purpose Semiautomatic Equipment
    • Fully Automatic Equipment
  • Portable Equipment
  • Multidirectional Equipment
  • Dry Powder Test Equipment
    • Powder Selection
    • Powder Applications
    • Applicators
  • Wet Visible Test Equipment
    • Particle Selection
      • Black Powder Concentrate
      • Red Powder Concentrate
      • Suspension Characteristics
      • Water- and Oil-Suspendible Concentrates
    • Media
    • Surface Preparation for Wet Method
  • Wet Fluorescent Method
    • Test Variables
      • Bath Strength
      • Volume Loss
      • Bath Replenishment
  • Suspension Preparation
    • Fluorescent Dye Separation Check
    • Suspension Application
      • Dry Powder Liquid Concentrate
      • Wet Paste Concentrate
  • Water Baths
    • Water Bath Safety
    • Water Bath Issues
    • Water Bath Concentration
    • Settling Test
      • Wet Magnetic Particles for Yoke Magnetization
    • Fluorescent Background Check
    • Oil-Based Media Contamination Check
  • Fluorescent Test Materials
    • Maintenance
    • Surface Preparation for Wet Fluorescent Method
    • Fluorescent Bath Test Variables
  • Ultraviolet Radiation
    • Generation of Ultraviolet Radiation
    • Ultraviolet Lamp Fixtures
    • Sources
      • Carbon Arc Systems
      • Low-Pressure Fluorescent Bulbs
      • High-Pressure Arc Bulbs

Chapter 13: Types of Discontinuities

  • Introduction
    • Effects of Discontinuities on Materials
  • Inherent Discontinuities
    • Cold Shut
    • Pipe
    • Hot Tears
    • Blowholes and Porosity
    • Nonmetallic Inclusions
    • Segregation
  • Primary Processing Discontinuities
    • Seams
    • Laminations
    • Stringers
    • Cupping
    • Cooling Cracks
    • Forged and Rolled Laps
    • Internal and External Bursts
    • Hydrogen Flakes
    • Welding Discontinuities
      • Cold Cracking
      • Hot Cracking
      • Lamellar Tearing
      • Lack of Fusion
      • Lack of Penetration
      • Porosity
      • Inclusions
      • Undercut
      • Overlap
  • Secondary Processing Discontinuities
    • Grinding Cracks
    • Heat-Treating and Quench Cracks
    • Pickling Cracks
    • Machining Tears
    • Plating Cracks
  • Inservice Discontinuities
    • Fatigue Cracking
      • Fatigue Crack Structure
    • Creep Cracking
    • Stress-Corrosion Cracking
    • Hydrogen Cracking

Chapter 14: Evaluation Techniques

  • Reference Standards
    • Empirical Rules for Using Reference Standards
  • System Evaluation
    • System Standardization
    • Parametric Evaluations
      • Weld Bead Crack Reference Standards
    • Technique Development
    • Reference Standards for System Evaluation
  • Standard Tool Steel Ring
    • Using the Ring Standard
    • Ring Standard Magnetic Fields
    • Limitations of the Ring Standard
  • Reference Standard Test Blocks
    • Prism Test Block
    • Split Prism Test Block
    • Magnetized Test Blocks
    • Block Standard Measurements
  • Electronic Reference Standards
    • Hall Effect Meters
    • Eddy Current Devices
  • Summary

Chapter 15: Quality Control

  • Introduction
    • New Materials
    • In-Use Materials
  • Bath Degradation
    • Material Contamination
    • Evaporation Losses
    • Heat Degradation
    • Process Degradation
  • Material Control Requirements
    • Use of the Settling Test
  • Ultraviolet Radiation and Facilities
    • Ultraviolet Radiation Intensity Requirements
      • Ambient Light Measurements
      • Ultraviolet Light Measurements
    • Variables
      • Ultraviolet Lamps
      • Line Voltage Variations
      • Service and Aging Variations
    • Ultraviolet Lamp Hazards
  • Proper Procedures
    • Variation in Technique
    • Selection of Current
    • Current Application Choices
    • Selection of Media
    • Selection of Technique
    • Field Orientation
      • Head Shot
      • Central Conductor
      • Longitudinal Field
    • Sensitivity Requirements
  • Conclusion

References

Figure Sources

Glossary

Index


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